Recent Research Topics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology:
Current Topics in Obstetrics Questions with Answers
Q.1. What is the other name of Audit?
Ans. It is also called clinical review.
Q.2. What is Audit?
Ans. It is a clinical review which is an effective tool to indicate that change is essential.
Q.3. Define Audit.
Ans. Audit is defined systematic and critical analysis of the quality of Medical Care.
Q.4. What is the Objective Audit?
Ans. The Objective of Audit is to improve quality of clinical care.
Q.5. How is the Objective achieved or done?
Ans. It is done by changing and strengthening many aspects of hospital practice and administration.
Q.6. With what should Audit not be confused?
Ans. Audit should not be confused with research which involves new experiments, investigations or treatmen
Q.7. Write the importance of carrying out an Audit?
Ans. The importance of Audit is as follows:
(a) In this a well structured and efficient Audit is based on scientific evidences with facts & figure
(b) It can replace the out-of date Clinical Practice with the better one.
(c) It can remove the disbelieving and agnostic attitudes between hospital management and professionals.
(d) It improves awareness between doctors and patients.
(e) It is an efficient educational tool.
Q 11 What are the common areas of legal threat in obstetrics?
Ans. These are:
Current Topics in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Q.12. What is included in Perinatal injury area?
Ans. It includes
A)Still birth & neonatal death.
B)Brain damage to a baby.
Q13. What all is included in Maternal Injury?
Ans. It Includes
D)Forgotten packs in abdominal cavity.
E)Forgotten packs in vagina cavity.
Q14.Explain how can these Medico-legal problems minimised.
Ans. The Medico-legal problems can be minimised by
A)Clear communication with the client.
b) Before any management & decision there should be an Informed & written consent.
C)There should be proper documentation of facts int he patients, file clearly & legibly in respect of date & time.
D) Strict adherance to mangement protocol is essential.
E)There should be careful record of maintenance.
F)There should be adequate training and suspervision of juniors specially involved in labour ward patient care.
G) Seniors must be available for consultation or direct involvement as & when asked for.
H)There should be facility & arrangement for consultation with another physician into speciality when any difficulty is faced.
I)There should be regular audit & meetings to update the knowledge of all the staff involved in patient care.
Hence with this audit will improve the quality of care.
Q.15. What is Day Care Obstetrics?
Ans. Day Care Obstetrics is designed to provide:
(a) In patient care to a pregnant woman on an outpatient basis throughout the day. (b) It is a New Concept. (c) It is similar to day care surgery as done for minor operations.
Q.16. How is Day Care Unit developed ?
Ans. It is developed as follows:
(a) The maximum number of in patient load is due to pregnancies complicated by hypertension. (b) Its Objective is to provide rest, risk assessment and treatment to avoid complication.
(c) When such a patient is met in hospital or day care unit then repeated blood pressure measurement is done.
(d) Along with this examination of urine for protein, blood for uric acid & plateletes is also done.
(e) Fetal well being is assessed by clinical examination, cardiotocograph & USG for liquor volume & fetal weight.
(f) Finally patient’s risk in assessed & death.
Q.17.Explain the procedure for Risk Evaluation.
Ans. The procedure for risk evaluation is as follows:
(a) Day Care Obstetrics requires good Organisation & quick access to laboratory & another monitoring parameters.
(b) It is essential that a senior & experienced Obste- trician should assess the pregnant women in a day care unit.
(c) A high risk patient should be admitted from the day care unit for subsequent management.
(d) A moderate risk patient could be seen for repeat day care assessment.
(e) A low risk patient without any maternal or fetal compromise could be transferred back to routine antenatal clinical system.
Q.18. What are the advantages of Day-Care Obstetrics?
Ans. The advantages are:
(a) This acts as a safety net for assessment of Obstetric Complaints.
(b) It reduces inpatient Overcrowding & work load specially in a busy hospital.
(c) It reduces conconitant costs.
Q.19. What is the Objectives of Day Care Unit?
Ans. Its Objective is to provide:
(b) Risk assessment.
(c) Treatment to avoid any complication.
Q.20. Which all investigations are done in Day Care Unit?
Ans. The Investigations done in a day care unit are:
(a) Blood pressure monitoring.
(b) Examination of urine.
(c) Examination of Blood.
(d) Assessment of fetal well being by clinical examination & cardiotocograph + USG.
Q.21. How can the Post-Operative infection be reduced?
Ans. The post-operative infection can be reduced by prophylactic use of antibiotics.
Q.22. What kind of infections can occur post-operatively?
Ans. The infections that can occur post-operatively are:
(b) Wound infection
(d) Pelvic abscess.
Q.23.Which type of Caesarean section is associated with high infection rate?
Ans. It is Emergency caesarean section which is associated with high infection rate.
Similarly cases with prolonged rupture of membranes & prolong labour care at higher risk of infection.
Q.24. What are the infective agents?
Ans. The Infective agents are Polymicrobial including gram positive & Gram negative aerobes & anaerobes.
Q.25. With which drugs is the infection treated?
Ans. Usually below written antibiotics are used:
(a) Inj. Cefazoline 1 gm TDS.
(b) Inj. Cefuroxime 1.5 gm or amoxicillin – Clavulanic acid (1.2gm)
Specialities in Obstetrics Questions with Answers (MCQs)
Q1. What is Intrapartum fetal monitoring?
Ans. Intrapartum fetal monitoring means simply to the fetal behaviour during labour.
Q2. What is its aim?
Ans. The aim is to detect at earliest any evidence of fatel jeopardy, so that prompt measures can be taken before any adverse effect of anoxia occur.
Q3. What are the methods of fetal monitoring?
Ans. The Methods of fetal monitoring are:
Q 4. What is fetal distress?
Ans. It is an ill-defined term, used to express intrauterine fetal jeopardy, as a result of fatel Intrauterine hypoxia.
Q 5. Define shock in Obstetrics.
Ans. Shock is defined as a state of circulatory inadequacy with poor tissue perfusion resulting in generalised cellular hypoxia.
Q 6. What is Endotoxic Shock?
Ans. Endotoxic shock usually follows infection with gramNegative Organisms. The commonest organism escherichia coll.
Q.7. What other organisms are responsible for Endotoxic shock ?
Ans. Other organisms occasionally responsible for Endotoxic shock are:
(f) Aelobacter aerogenes.
Q.8. Write the classification of shock.
Ans. The shock is classified as:
1. Hypovolaemic shock. (a) Fluids loss shock.
(b) Haemorrhagic shock. (c) Supine hypotensive syndrome.
(d) Shock associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation.
2. Septic shock.
3. Cardrogenic shock
4. Neurogenic shock.
Q.9. How can Haemorrhagic shock be managed?
Ans. Haemorrhage shock can be managed by volume replacement (infusion & transfusion).
Q.10. What is to be used for immediate fluid replacement in haemorrhagic shock?
Ans. Crystalloids (Normal Saline)