Antenatal Care

Antenatal Care Systematic Supervision (Examination & advice) of a woman during Pregnancy is called Antenatal Care. It should start from the beginning of pregnancy and end at delivery. Antenatal Care Comprises of A) Careful History Taking & Examinations (General & Obstetrical) B) Advice given to the pregnant Woman. AIMS OF ANTENATAL CARE The aims of antenatal care are written below: 1) It helps to screen the High Risk Cases. 2) It helps to prevent and treat and untoward complications. 3)  It helps to ensure medical surveillance and prophylaxis. 4) It…

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Fetus in the Womb

Fetus in the Womb

Let us discuss the detail knowledge of fetus in the womb. LIE (a) The lie refers to the relationship of the long axis of the centralised uterus or maternal spine. (b) The commonest being – Longitudinal (99.5%) (c) The lie may be transverse or oblique or sometimes unstable until labour sets in and after this it becomes longitudinal or transverse. PRESENTATION The part of fetus which occupies the lower pole of uterus is called presentation of the fetus. The presentation may be : (a) Cephalic (96.5%) (b) Podalic (3%) (c)…

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Umbilical Cord Wrapped Around Neck

Umbilical Cord Wrapped Around Neck

Umbilical Cord Wrapped Around Neck The term “nuchal chord” refers to a condition when umbilical cord wrapped around neck of baby while still in the womb. Let’s discuss about the umbilical cord and various abnormalities. The finish or umbilical cord forms the connecting link between the fetus and placenta. It is through this umbilical cord that the fetal blood flows to and from the placenta. It extends from the fetal umbilicus to the fetal surface of placenta.   Development of Umbilical Cord It is developed from body stalk of mesoderm…

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Fetus Growth Stages | Fetal Heart

Fetus Growth Stages Fetal Heart

Fetus Growth Stages: Let us discuss the development weeks of fetus growth stages from the period of conception of birth. 0-4 weeks after conception’ Rapid growth Formation of the embryonic plate Primitive cental nervous system forms Heart develops and begins to beat Limb buds form. By end of 4 weeks embryo has assumed SALAMANDER look and has rudiments of ears (otic Pit), arms (arm buds) legs (leg buds) and facial and neck structures. Fetal heart rate at 8 weeks 5-8 weeks Very rapid cell division Head and facial features develop…

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Fluid During Pregnancy

Fluid During Pregnancy

Fluid During Pregnancy: Fluid during pregnancy is a faint alkaline watery content of the amniotic sac in which embryo-fetus grow. It is primarily of foetal origin with maternal contribution V12 extraplacental membranes. Physical Characteristics (a) Early pregnancy: It is clear. (b) Mid-pregnancy: More bile pigments make it yellow. (c) Late-Pregnancy: Colourless as bilirubin becomes negligible, particulate matters= vernix caseosa and desquamated epidermis appear as white flocules. Volume At eight weeks of pregnancy, amniotic fluid is discovered. 10 Weeks 30 ml. 20 Weeks 300ml. 30 Weeks 600 ml. 38 Weeks 1000ml. 40…

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Physical Changes During Pregnancy

Physical Changes During Pregnancy

Let us discuss all the physical changes during pregnancy. Vaginal Changes During Early Pregnancy i) It becomes Vascular. ii) Looks bluish (Jacquemier’s sign) iii) Is soft when felt. iv) Vaginal secretions are acidic. v) Anaerobes become more i.e. 5 times than aerobes. vi) Cytological studies show navicular cells i.e. pregnancy cells in clusters. Vulva It beomes Vascular, hypertrophied, pigmented and in some woman varicose veins appear. UTERUS During pregnancy there is increase in weight and ength of uterus. Changes occur in body, isthmus and ervix. (i) Weight of Uterus Gravid…

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Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Diagnosis Of Pregnancy From 1-12 Weeks (First Trimester) Pregnancy Diagnosis Test It can be diagnosed by the (A) Subjective and (B) Objective Symptoms, (A) Subjective Symptoms These all symptoms appear early in the pregnancy. they include: Amenorrhea. Morning Sickness. Frequency of Micturition. Breast discomfort. Fatigue. (B) Objective Signs These include: Breast Changes. Changes per abdomen that is the pelvic Changes. Immunological tests.   (A) SUBJECTIVE SYMPTOMS AMENORRHEA symptoms, causes, treatment: It means missing of menses. (a) Cyclic bleeding may occur upto 12 weeks of pregnancy until the decidual space is…

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Black Snake

Black snake

Black Snake: Although all snakes have a head, a tail, and a cylindrical body, there is enough variety of black snakes to distinguish over 3,400 species. They live in a wide variety of habitats, including deserts, jungles, and oceans. Neotropical Sunbeam Black Snake (loxocemus bicolor)   The lone individual in its family is the neotropical sunbeam snake. Although it has a pelvic girdle and a pair of spur-like vestigial hind legs, it lacks additional features that would identify it as a member of the python family. It is a reclusive, semi-burrowing…

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Invasive Species in the Amazon Rainforest

Invasive Species in the Amazon Rainforest

Invasive Species in the Amazon Rainforest: The significant infestation of herbaceous weeds, commonly known as “Juquira” in the Amazon region, is one of the main causes of environmental disturbances such declines in pasture productivity and biodiversity losses. Such infestations could cause pasture to degrade, culminating in a total loss of productivity and the consequent abandonment of the land if they are not successfully handled. Let us discuss some of the invasive species in the Amazon rainforest as follows: Pau-de-lacre or Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) The ability of invasive plants to outcompete native…

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Big Data Cloud Computing

Big Data Cloud Computing

Big Data Cloud Computing: Recent research has looked at cloud computing platforms with the intention of either developing parallel versions of libraries and statistical tools or enabling users to build clusters on these platforms and operate them in the cloud. This big data cloud computing includes current efforts in both directions, including computers as IaaS and data analytics tools as SaaS. Big Data Analytics in Cloud Computing Data analytics solutions offer parallel algorithms (e.g., Message Passing Interface [MPI], Hadoop) in optimised statistical toolboxes for data analysis. Users can also create…

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