Management and Operations

What is operations management?

Operations management is the management of how businesses produce and distribute goods and services.  This activity is under the purview of the organization’s operations function. Due to the fact that every firm produces a variety of services and/or goods, every organisation has an operations function.

However, not all business models will always refer to the operations function by this term. The management of some, or all, of the resources that go into performing the operations function falls within the purview of operations managers. Once more, the operations manager may go by a different name in some firms. He or she may be referred to as the “store manager” in a grocery store, the “administrative manager” at a hospital, or the “fleet manager” in a distribution company, for instance.

Manufacturing Operations Management

It is fastidious about ensuring that its processes adhere to exact quality requirements. And it has substantially invested in process technology that lowers the cost of its goods and the environmental impact of its operations. Of course, the sort of organisation in which the operations function is housed will have some bearing on the specifics of what goes into manufacturing goods and services.

Relationship Between Operations Function and Other Functions of Organization

The links between operations and other functions in terms of information flow are depicted in image. It provides a general notion of the nature of each relationship even though it is not exhaustive. However, keep in mind that compared to the other core functions, the support functions have a distinct connection with operations. The main duty of operations management in terms of supporting functions is to ensure that they are aware of and aid in meeting the needs of operations. Less “this is what we desire” and more “this is what we can achieve presently – how do we reconcile this with broader business needs” characterises the connection with the other two major tasks.

Management and operations

Importance of Management and Operations | OPS Management


Importance of Management and Operations: Even if we have never seen the management and operations is the management of function in action, it can sometimes be rather simple to picture what it accomplishes in certain sorts of organisations. For instance, most people are familiar with photographs of a vehicle assembly. But what about a marketing firm? We have a general idea of what these firms do—they design the commercials we see in publications and on television—but how do they actually run their businesses?

The word “create” is the key. Any company that produces something uses resources to do so, necessitating the existence of an operations activity.

Another crucial similarity between the auto factory and the advertising agency is that both have a higher goal in mind: making money off the creation and provision of their goods or services.

But non-profit organisations also use their resources to produce and provide services—not for financial gain, but rather to benefit society.

In order to envision the operations activity in any sort of organization—small or large, service or manufacturing, public or private, profit or not-for-profit—a common concept and objective must be shared, regardless of language. Operations management’s goal is to “adequately offer outputs that properly meet defined market criteria.”

Even yet, there are some unique considerations to be made, especially in smaller firms and those whose goal is to maximise something other than profit, despite the fact that the fundamental nature and purpose of operations management are the same in all types of organisations.

Management and Operations

Operations Systems | What is Process Hierarchy?

Each process functions as a scaled-down version of the overall operation of which it is a component, and resources that have been converted move between them. In actuality, these processes are what truly convert inputs into outputs throughout any operation. A “process” is a collection of tools and actions that converts inputs into products that meet the needs of (internal or external) customers.

They constitute an “internal network” within an operation and serve as the “building blocks” of all operations. Each process serves as both an internal supplier and a customer for other processes at the same time. This idea of an “internal customer” offers a framework for examining an operation’s internal operations. It serves as a helpful reminder that the effectiveness of the entire operation can be increased by treating internal customers with the same level of respect as external consumers. Table provides an example of how a variety of operations might be described in this manner.

Management and Operations

Each of these processes contains a separate network of discrete resource components, such as individuals and discrete process technology (machines, computers, storage facilities, etc.).

Once more, converted resources move from one unit of transforming resource to another.

Therefore, any activity or business is composed of a network of processes, and every process is composed of a network of resources. However, each company or operation can be seen as a component of a larger network of companies or operations. It will have operations that provide it with the goods and services it requires, and unless it works directly with end users, it will provide clients who may then in turn supply their own clients. Any enterprise may also have a number of suppliers and clients in addition to competing with other businesses that produce services or goods that are similar to its own.

The supply network is the name given to this network of operations. The input-transformation-output model can be applied at several “levels of analysis” in this fashion. Here, we have applied the concept to three layers of business analysis: process, operation, and supplier network. However, there are numerous other “levels of analysis,” ranging from tiny to major processes, all the way up to the massive supply network that characterises an entire sector.

What Do Management and Operations Managers Do?

Depending on how a company defines the parameters of the function, the precises of what operations managers do will vary. But regardless of whether an operation is in the service, manufacturing, private, or public sectors, or how its role is defined, there are some broad groups of activities that apply to all sorts of operations. The four categories of direct, design, deliver, and develop are used to categorise operations management tasks.

  • Directing the operation’s overall plan of attack. Prior to the thorough design of operations and processes, one must have a general grasp of operations and processes, their strategic purpose and performance, and an awareness of how the latter is realised.
  • Designing the operations’ processes and resources. Determining the physical form, shape, and composition of operations and processes in accordance with the services and goods they produce is known as design.
  • Delivery process planning and control. Following design, it is necessary to plan and regulate how services and goods will be delivered to customers from suppliers and throughout the entire operation.
  • Improving process effectiveness. Operations managers—or any process managers—are increasingly understood to be unable to consistently provide services and goods in the same manner that they always have. They have a duty to enhance the capabilities of their processes in order to boost process efficiency.
  • Operations management is the process of allocating resources to create goods or services in an effective and efficient way. This entails explaining what must be done and convincing others to accomplish it. Interpersonal competence is essential.
  • Every time a manager of operations takes action (of any kind), there is a chance to learn from the outcome. Learning is a key component of operations management because without it, improvement is impossible, and improvement is essential to all operations.
  • The goal of operations management is continuous improvement. This entails coming up with novel solutions, being inventive, creative, and (sometimes) unusual.
  • Although operations management may be the most important role in any company, it is not the only one. It’s critical for operations managers to understand how they can support the efficient operation of other functions.
  • Making decisions is a key aspect of operations management. Every choice must be assessed (sometimes with very little time). examining both the quantitative and the qualitative facets of the decision is required. Although they are not required to be mathematical wizards, operations managers should not be intimidated by numbers.
  • Operations managers frequently work under stress. No matter what issues arise, they must be able to maintain their composure.

Model of Operations Management

The model of operations and process management that will be applied throughout this book may now be created by combining two concepts. The first is the notion that operations and the processes that comprise both operations and other business functions are transformation systems that receive inputs and turn them into outputs by utilising process resources. The second concept is that resources must be managed in terms of how they are directed, designed, planned, and controlled for delivery, as well as how they are developed and improved for both an organization’s operations as a whole and for each of its specific activities.

Inventory Management in Operations Management | Inventory Operations | inventory supply chain


When materials, clients, or information accumulate as they move through systems or networks, it is referred to as inventory. However, in this context, we use the phrase to refer to the accumulation of the changed resources that move via processes, activities, or supply networks. Examples of transformed resources are hotel rooms and cars in vehicle rental companies. Physical materials such as parts, components, finished commodities, or physical (paper) information records make up physical inventory, also known as stock.

Queues are collections of customers, whether they are actual lines of people in a waiting area at an airport or those waiting for assistance at the end of phone lines. Databases are repositories for collections of digital data, such as insurance information or medical records. We refer to managing these accumulations as “inventory management.” And that is crucial. In a manufacturing, material inventories may account for a sizable amount of working capital. Large sums of money can be released by minimising them. However, if they are cut too much, consumers’ purchases might not be filled. Too many customers waiting in line too long can become irritated, upset, and perhaps leave, which lowers income. Digital information must be stored in databases, and while database maintenance may be expensive, database storage is essential.

Warehouse Operations Management

The principles and procedures involved in managing a warehouse‘s daily operations are collectively referred to as warehouse operations management. This broadly speaking entails receiving and setting up warehouse space, planning labour, maintaining inventory, and completing orders.


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