We are going to cover Fetus | Fetal Development by Week and Fetus Development stages and regarding human fetal circulation and quiz section.
Human Fetus and Fetal Circulation | Fetus Development Stages
Q.1. Name the 3 periods in the prenatal development of fetus.
Ans. (a) Ovular period (Germinal period). (b) Embryonic period. (c) Fetal period.
Q.2. For how long does Ovular period last? | fetus at 2 weeks
Ans. It lasts for first 2 weeks following Ovulation.
Q.3. For how long does Embryonic period last? | fetus at 3 weeks
Ans. It begins at 3rd week following Ovulation.
Q.4. How long does fetal period last and when does it end?
Ans. It begins at 8th week following Ovulation or lowers after the onset of the last menstrual period & ends in delivery.
Q.5. At how many weeks can embryo be recognized as human one? | fetus at 4 weeks
Ans. At 8 weeks & it measures 4 cm.
Q.6. In which terms is the chronology in fetal period expressed?
Ans. It is expressed in terms of menstrual age & not in Embryonic age.
Q.7. What is the average fetal weight in India?
Ans. It varies from 2.5kg to 3.5 kg.
Q.8. What are the 3 stages of fetal nutrition following fertilization?
Ans. The 3 stages of fetal nutrition following fertilization are:
- Histotrophic transfer.
Q.9. What all is drained from mother to fetus during the last 3 months?
Ans. 2/3th of total calcium.
3/5 th of total protein.
4/5 th of total Iron are drained from mother during last 3 months.
Q.10. When can Rh factor be determined?
Ans. Presence of Rh factor has been demonstrated in the fetal blood from as early as 38 days after conception.
Q.11. How much is the feto-Placental blood at term?
Ans. The total feto-placental blood volume at term is estimated to be 125ml per kg body weight of fetus.
Q.12. When does Maternal Immunoglobolin G (IgG) Cross the placenta?
Ans. Maternal Immunoglobolin G (IgG) crosses the placenta from 12th week onwards.
Q.13. How much is the urine production near term?
Ans. Near term urine production rises to 650ml/day.
Q.14. What causes the greenish black colour in Meconium?
Ans. It is due to bile pigment Biliverdin.
Q.15. At how many weeks does lung surfactant appear?
Ans. At 24 weeks.
Q.16. What type of blood do Umbilical Vein carry?
Ans. It carries oxygenated blood (80%).
Q.17. What type of blood does Umbilical artery carry ?
Ans. It carries deoxygenated blood which goes to placenta for oxygenation & recirculation.
Q.18. When do the Umbilical arteries close?
Ans. Functional Closure = Immediately after birth.
Actual Obliteration = 2-3 months.
Q.19. What do the distal & proximal part of umbilical arteries form?
Ans. Distal Parts – Lateral Umbilical Ligaments. Proximal – Remain open as superior vesical arteries.
Q.20. What do the Umbilical veins form after obliteration?
Ans. It forms Ligamentum teres.
Q.21. What does ductus venosus become after obliteration?
Ans. It becomes Ligamentum Venosum.
Q.22. When does the functional and anatomical closure of ductus arteriosus occur?
Ans. Functional closure: after establishment pulmonary circulation anatomical closure-1-3 mon
Q.23. What does ductus arteriosus become after closure?
Ans. It becomes ligamentum arteriosum.
Q.24. When does the functional and Anatomic closure of foramen ovale occur?
Ans. Functional closure occurs soon after birth
Anatomical closuer takes 1 year = 1 year
Q.25. What is it called after closure (foramen ovale
Ans. Fossed ovails.
Q.26. How much is the cardial output within birth?
Ans. Following birth (within 2hrs) the cardial outp is estimated to be about 500ml/ min & heart rate 120- 140/min.
Q.27. How can you calculate the length of fetus i.e. crown -rump length?
Ans. To determine the length of the fetus, the measurement is commonly taken from vertex to coccyx (crown-rump length) in earlier weeks.
While from the end of 20th week ownwards, the measurement is taken from the vertex to the heel (crown-heel length).
Q.28. Write the formula of calculation of length d fetus? Cop. the crown heel length (C.H.)
Ans. Crown heel measurement of the first 5 months calculated by: Squaring the no. of lunar months to which pregnancy belongs. In the second half it is calculated by multiplying the lunar months by 5. The length is expressed in centimetres.
Q.29. How is the age of fetus calculated?
Ans. Haase’s rule is employed in calculating the age of fetus from its length in centimetres.
(a) During first 5 lunar months- the length in cm the square of the lunar months.
(b) In the second 5 lunar months, the length in cm divided by 5 gives lunar months.e.g from 6th month it is 5 times number of months.
4th Month – 16cm
5th Month – 25cm
7th Month – 30 cm
8th Month – 35cm
9th Month – 40 cm
10th Month – 45cm
Q.32. In which week in the embryonic Plate formed?
Ans. Embryonic plate is formed between 0-4 weeks.
Q.33. In which week does heart develop.
Ans. Heart develops of begns to beat between 0-4.
Q.34. What kind of look does the embryo assume at the end of 4 weeks?
Ans. The embryo develops or assumes a SALAM-ANDER look.
Q.35. When does the x become apparat in the embryo
Ans. x becomes apparat between 9-12 weeks.
Q.36. When does the embryonic period end?
Ans. Embryonic period ends at the end of 7th week.
Q.37. Which period of weeks is considered to be very critical and why?
Ans. 9-12 weeks are considered to be very critical period because during this period if the mother exposed to any teratogens (drugs, x-rays viruses) may cause major congenital malformation or may pro to be deadly.
Q.38. When is the skeletal system visible X-ray
Ans. Skeletal development is visible on X-ray during the 13-16 weeks.
Q.39. When is quiderling felt by the mother?
Ans. At 18-20 weeks.
Q.40. During which weeks is survival expected the fetus is born.
Ans. During 25-28 weeks.
Q.41. During which weeks does the fetus open the eyes? |
Ans. 29-32 weeks.
fetus at 4 weeks | decreased fetal movement 22 weeks | fetus at 3 weeks | fetus at 2 weeks | 6 month fetus | 14 week old fetus