Male Reproductive | Female Reproductive Anatomy

Male Reproductive Female Reproductive Anatomy

We are going to cover Male Reproductive | Female Reproductive Anatomy means Reproductive system. Firstly discuss important concepts and after that Quiz section.


Male Reproductive Health System



The male reproductive health system organs are written below:
1. Scrotum
2. Testis.
3. Vas deferens (deferent duct)
4. Penis
5. Accessory x Organs.

(a) Seminal Vesicle.
(b) Prostate.
(c) Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s gland)

REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

Male reproductive organs are mostly male external genital organs that lie external to body in between thighs in Midline.

SCROTUM
Scrotum is a hanging skin sac in between the thighs.

TESTIS
Testis are a pair of sex glands. The two testes are suspended in the scrotum by spermatic cord.
Each testis is whitish ovoid solid gland. It measures 5cm long, 2.5 cm broad and 3 cm antero posteriorly.

Structure of Testis

From Inward
(a) It has thick fibrous capsule-tunica albuginea fibrous septa divides the testis into 250 lobules.
(b) In each lobule lies one-three coiled seminiferous tubles.
(c) On the posterior surface of testes efferent ductules drains the rest testes into long coiled duct- epididymis.

Each Seminiferous tubule Contains
(a) Basement membrane.
(b) Spermatogonia cells- During puberty to old age these cells with 46 diploid chromosome divide the primary spermatocyte (46 chromosome) by mitosis, then to smaller secondary spermatocyte (23 haploid chromosome) by meiosis divide to smallest spermatids (23 haploid chromosome) by second meiosis being embedded on free end of sertoli cells.
Spermatozoa cells with tail are formed and released within lumen of seminiferous tubules from spermatids.
(c) Sertoli cells- these are large polygonal cells extending from base to tubular Lumen.
(d) Interstitial cells (leyding cells) these cells produce Testosterone.

VAS DEFERENS (DEFERENT DUCT)

Vas deferens on each side is a muscular excretory duct of testes.
It is hollow tube 45cm long and 3mm in diameter. Imm Lumen. Each duct starts at tail of epididymis. Courses up at back of spermatic cord in scrotum enters pelvic cavity through anal canal and ends at dilated ampullary part. The latter join duct of seminal vesicle on posterior surface of urinary bladder to form ejaculatory duct. Ejaculatory duct opens into prostatic urethra which runs into urethral passage.

Structure

Vas deferens has outer connective tissue layer, Middle muscle layer and inner mucous layer with single layer of columnar epithelia.It weighs 10.5-14 gm.

PENIS

Penis is 10 cm long, 4 cm broad flaccid muscular cylindrical organ that lies at the base of scrotum in front on midline.

The rounded bulb end of penis is called glans.
Glans is covered with foreskin. It is male external genital organ for passage of urine through penile urethra and ejaculation of semen to exterior during copulation when it gets erected to 6″ or more.

THE ACCESSORY ORGAN

The accessory Reproduction Organs are :

(a) Seminal Vesicle: It is paired 5cm long coiled accessory sex gland lying on either side of ampulla of vas deferens.
(b) Prostate : Is a midline fibromusculo glandular sex gland that lies between neck of urinary bladder. It is transversed by prostatic urethra and two ejaculatory ducts.

(c) Bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands): Two round glands lie one on either side of the deep perineal touch their ducts open into penile urethra.


Female Reproductive System, Cell, System Diagram



Reproductive Organs in female are those which are concerned with copulation (Coitus), fertilization (The impregnation of the female sex cell, the ovum, by a male sex cell, a spermatozoon), growth and development of fetus and its exit to the Outer World .

Classification of female reproductive organs
The female reproductive organs are broadly divided into
(a) External Genitalia (Vulva or Pudendum)
(b) Internal Genitalia
(c) Accessory reproductive organs.

VULVA OR EXTERNAL GENITALIA

Vulva Includes
(a) Mons Veneris
(b) Labia Majora (Greater Lips)
(c) Labia Minora (Lesser Lips)
(d) Clitoris
(e) Vestibule
(f) Perineum

These all are visible on external examination.

Anteriorly – Mons Veneris

Laterally – Labia Majora
Posteriorly – Perineum

1. MONS VENERIS/ MONS PUBIS

Mons pubis is a pad of subcutaneous adipose connective tissue lying in front of pubis or over the symphysis pubis.

In adult female the Mons Pubis is covered by hairs.

2. LABIA MAJORA (GREATER LIPS)

The Vulva is bounded on each side by the elevation of skin and subcutaneous tissue which form the labia majora. They are continuous but medially they form the posterior commissure in front of the anus. The inner surface of Labia Majora are Hairless Labia Majora is composed of skin, fibrous tissue, fat, sebaceous glands, sweat glands. Beneath the skin are dense connective tissue and adipose tissue. The adipose tissue is richly supplied with venous plexus which may produce haematoma if injured during childbirth. Labia majora is same as scrotum in male.

3. LABIA MINORA

These are 2 smaller folds of skin between the labia majora containing numerous sebaceous glands.

Anteriorly they divide to enclose the clitoris and unite with each other in front and behind the clitoris to form the prepuce and frenulum.

The lower portion of labia minora fuses across the midline to form a fold of skin known as fourchette. It is usually lacerated during childbirth.

Between the fourchette and the vaginal orifice is the fossa navicularis. Labia Minora do not contain hair follicles. The folds contain connective tissue, numerous sebaceous glands, erectile muscle fibres and numerous vessels and nerve endings.

4. CLITORIS

Clitoris corresponds to penis in male. It is small cylindrical erectile body measuring 2.5cm situated in the most anterior part of the vulva. Clitoris is extremely sensitive and highly vascular and plays a part in the orgasm of sexual intercourse. It is attached to the under surface of the symphysis pubis by the suspensory ligament.

Parts of Clitoris: It consists of:

(a) A glans (Covered by squamous epithelium & richly supplied with nerves)

(b) A body and
(c) Two Crura

5. VESTIBULE

It is a triangular space bounded anteriorly by the clitoris. Posteriorly by the fourchette Laterally (either side) by Labia Minora. There are 4 openings into the vestibule
(a) Urethral Opening.
(b) Vaginal Orifice & Hymen.
(c) Openings of Bartholin’s ducts (2 in number)

(a) Urethral Opening

It is situated in the midline just in front of vaginal orifice about 1-1.5cm below the pubic arch. It consists of paraurethral ducts.

These ducts either open into posterior wall of urethral orifice or directly into the vestibule.

(b) Vaginal Orifice and Hymen
(i) Vaginal Orifice: The Vaginal Orifice lies in the posterior end of the vestibule and is of varying size and shape. In Virgins and nullipara the opening is closed by the Labia Minora, but in parous it may be exposed.

(ii) Hymen: The Vaginal Orifice is incompletely closed by a septum of mucous membrane called Hymen-The membranes vary in shape but is usually circular or crescentic in Virgins. It is usually ruptured at Consummation of Marriage. T During childbirth it is extremely lacerated and U is later represented by Cicatrised Nodules of varying size called the carunculae Myrtiformes on both sides. It is lined by stratified squamous epithelium. in de

(c) Opening of Bartholin’s Duct
Greater Vestibular or gland-There are 2 Bartholin glands one on each side.
(i) Size: Pea Sized
(ii) Colour: Bartholin’s ducts are yellowish white vul in colour.
(iii) Location: They are situated in the superficial perineal pouch close to the posterior end of vestibular bulb.
(iv) Function: During sexual excitement it secretes child abundant alkaline mucus which helps in lubrication.
(v) Lining of Bartholin Duct: The duct is lined by columnar epithelium but near its opening by stratified squamous epithelium.
(vi) Vestibular Bulb: These are bilateral elongated masses of erectile tissue situated beneath the mucous membrane of the vestibule.
They are homologous to the single bulb of the penis and corpus sponglosum in the male. They are likely to be injured during childbirth with brisk haemorrhage.

6. PERINEUM
Perineum is the area extending from the fourchette to the anal canal. It is roughly triangular and consists of connective tissue, muscle and fat. Boundaries of Perineum.
(a) Perineum is bounded above by the inferior surface of the pelvic floor.
(b) Below by the skin between the buttocks and thighs.
(c) Laterally it is bounded by ischiopubic rami, Ischial tuberosities and sacrotuberous ligament.
(d) Posteriorly it is bounded by Coccyx


Reproductive Health Female



 

 


Human Female Reproductive System Functions



 

 

 


Women Reproductive System | Parts of Female Reproductive system



The Internal genitalia in female includes: Vagina, Uterus, Fallopian Tubes and the Ovaries. These are placed internally and require special instruments for inspection.

VAGINA

The Vagina is a fibro-muscular membranous sheath communicating the uterine cavity with the exterior at vulva. The Canal is directly upward and backwards forming an angle of 45° with the horizontal in erect posture.

The diameter of canal is about 2.5cm being widest in the upper part and narrowest at introitus. It has got enough power of distensibility as evident during childbirth.

FUNCTIONS

Follwing are the functions of Vagina :

(a) Vagina constitues the excretory channel for the Uterine secretion and Menstrual blood.
(b) It is the Organ of Copulation.
(c) It forms the birth canal for parturition.

WALLS
It has got 4 walls.
(a) Anterior Wall (7 cm)
(b) Posterior Wall (9 cm)
(c) 2 Lateral Walls

Fornices
There are 4 fornices:
(a) One anterior (Shallower)
(b) One Posterior (Deeper)
(c) 2 Lateral.

RELATIONS
(a) Anteriorly
(i) Upper 1/3rd is related with: Base of Bladder.
(ii) Lower 2/3rd’s is related with: Urethra, & Lower half is embedded with its walls.

(b) Posteriorly
(i) Upper 1/3rd related with Pouch of Douglas
(ii) Middle 3rd related with Anterior rectal wall, separated by rectovaginal septum.
(iii) Lower 3rd related: is separated from the anal canal by perineal body.

(c) Laterally
(i) Upper 1/3rd: Pelvic Cellular tissue at the base of broad ligament in which the ureter and the uterine artery lie approximately 2cm from the lateral fornices.
(ii) Middle 3rd: It is blended with levator ani. (iii) 2/3: It is related with bulbocavernosus, muscles, Vestibular bulb and Bartholins glands.

STRUCTURES
The layers from within outwards are:
(a) Mucous Coat: Lined by stratified squamous epithelium without any secreting glands.
(b) Sub Mucous layer: Lined by loose alveolar vascular tissue.
(c) Muscular Layer: Consists of inner Ocular and Outer longitudinal layer.
(d) Fibrous Coat: Derived from endopelvic fascia. It is highly vascular.

VAGINAL SECRETION
(a) The Vaginal pH from Puberty to menopause is ACIDIC.
(b) pH varies with the Oestrogenic activity and ranges between 4-5.

THE UTERUS

The uterus is a hollow pyriform muscular organ situated in the pelvis between the bladder infront and rectum behind.

POSITION OF UTERUS
Its normal position is of Anteversion and Anteflexion.

MEASUREMENTS AND PARTS

1. Length of Uterus-7.5-8 cm.
2. Width of Uterus at fundus-5 cm.
3. Thickness of uterine walls-2.5 cm.
4. Weight of Uterus-50-80gms.
5. Parts of Uterus-It has 3 parts:
(a) Body or Corpus
(b) Isthmus
(c) Cervix.

(a) Body Or Corpus

(i) The body is triangular and lies between the opening of the tubes and the isthmus. (ii) The body is further divided into Fundus The part which lies above the openings of uterine tubes.
(iii) The superolateral angles of the body of uterus project outwards from the junction of fundus and body and is called the cornia of the uterus.
Or
The upper outer angles of the uterus where fallopian tubes Join.

(b) Isthmus

(i) It is a constructed part measuring 0.5cm situated between the body and the cervix.

(ii) It is limited above by the anatomical internal OS and below by histological internal OS (Ascloff)

(iii) Some consider Isthmus as a part of the lower portion of the body of the uterus.

(c) Cervix

(i) It is cylindrical in shape and measures about 2.5cm.

(ii) It extends from the isthmus and ends at the external OS which opens into the vagina after perforating its anterior wall.

(iii) The part lying above vagina is called supravaginal and that which lies within the vagina is called vaginal part.

CAVITY

The cavity of uterine body is triangular on coronal section with the base above and apex below.
(a) It measures 3.5 cm. There is no cavity in fundus.
(b) The cervical canal is fusiform and measures about 2.5cm.
(c) Thus, the normal length of the Uterine cavity is usually 6.5-7cm.

FALLOPIAN TUBES

The uterine tubes are paired structures measuring about 10 cm.
(a) Situation of the tubes: These are situated in the medial three-fourth of the upper free margin of the broad ligament.
(b) Openings of the tubes: Each tube has got 2 openings. One Communicating with the lateral angle of the uterine cavity called uterine openings and measures 1mm in diameter and other is on the lateral end of the tube called Pelvic opening or abdominal Ostium and measures about 2mm in diameter.

THE OVARIES

The Ovaries are paired sex glands or gonads in female which are concerned with: (a) Germ Cell Maturation, Storage and its release.
(b) Steroidogenesis.
(c) Shape: Each ovary or gland is Oval in shape.
(d) Colour: Pinkish Grey.
(e) Measurements:
Length 3 Cm
Breadth = 2 Cm
Thickness = 1 Cm
(f) Ends, Borders and surfaces of ovaries : Each ovary presents 2 ends, 2 borders and 2 surfaces.

Ends = Tubal and uterine
Border = Mesovarium and free Posterior.
Surfaces = Medial and Lateral.

MEDULLA

It consists of lose connection tissues few unstriped muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. There are small collections of cells called “Hilus Cells” which are homologous to the interstitial cells of testes.

 


Male Reproductive System Functions, Diagram



 

 



Male Reproductive System Quiz | Female Reproductive System Quiz 



Q.1. What is the function of Reproductive Organs?

Ans. These are concerned with copulation, fertilization, growth and development of fetus and its escape or exit to the outer world.


Q.2. Write the main classification of Female Reproductive Organs?

Ans. Female Reproductive Organs are broadly classified into :

(a) External genitalia.

(b) Internal genitalia.

(c) Accessory reproductive organs.


Q.3. What is Vulva ?

Ans. Vulva is an external female genital organ. It consists of following parts:

(a) Mons veneris,

(b) Labia Majora

(c) Labia Minora

(d) Clitoris

(e) Vestibule

(f) Urethral orifice

(g) Vaginal orifice

(h) Bartholin’s gland.


Q.4. List the organs of external genitalia or Vulva or pudendum?

Ans. Vulva is an external female genital organ. It consists of following parts:

(a) Mons veneris,

(b) Labia Majora

(c) Labia Minora

(d) Clitoris

(e) Vestibule

(f) Urethral orifice

(g) Vaginal orifice

(h) Bartholin’s gland.


Q.5. What is the function of vagina ?

Ans. Vagina is a passage that allows the escape of the menstrual flow, receives the penis and is the organ of copulation and provides an exit for the fetus during delivery.


Q.6. Write the organs of internal genitalia.

Ans. Vagina, Uterus, Ovaries, fallopian tubes. These organs are placed internally and require special instrument for inspection.


Q.7.Name the main Accessory reproductive organ?

Ans. Breast.


Q.8. What is the function of uterus?

Ans. Uterus exists to shelter the fetus during pregnancy. Each month, it gets ready for this possibility, and after a pregnancy, it eject the uterine contents.


Q.9. Which Ligaments provide support to the Uterus?

Ans. The Uterus is supported by pelvic floor and maintain in position by several ligaments, of which those at level of cervix are the most important.

(a) Transverse cervical ligaments.

(b) Uterosacral ligaments.

(c) Pubocervical ligaments.

(d) Broad ligaments.

(e) Round ligaments

(f) Ovarian ligaments.


Q.10. How many layer does uterus have?

Ans. It is of 3 layers: (a) Perimetrium.

(b) Myometrium.

(c) Endometrium.


Q.11. What is the function of fallopian tubes?

Ans. The uterine tube receives the spermatozoa as they ascend and serves as a site for fertilisation. It also pushes (moves) the ovum towards the uterus. It provides nutrients to the fertilised ovum as it continues its journey to the uterus.


Q.12. Write about the structure of fallopian or uterine tubes?

Ans. Each tube is 10 cm. long. The tube’s lumen offers an unobstructed route from the outside to the peritoneal cavity. The fallopian or Uterine tube has four portions:

(a) The Interstitial portion.

(b) The Isthmus.

(c)The ampulla.

(d) The infundibulum.


Q.13. What is the function of Ovaries?

Ans. The Ovaries produce ova and the hormones oestrogen and progesterone.


Q.14. What do you understand by Uterine malformation?

Ans. For pregnancy and labour to be achieved with minimal difficulty, a woman must have normal reproductive anatomy, when structural abnormality of the pelvic organ exists, problems arise that can cause extra burden on mother and fetus. This is known as erine malformations.


Q.15. Name the organs of the male reproduction System.

Ans. Organs of the male reproductive system are:

a) The scrotum.

b) The testes.

c) The spermatic cord.

d) The seminal vesicles

e) Ejaculatory ducts.

f) The prostate gland.

g) The bulbourethral gland.

h) Penis.


Q.16. What is the function of Scrotum ?

Ans. Scrotum forms a pouch in which the testes are suspended outside the body. It lies below the symphysis pubis and between the upper part of the thighs behind the penis.


Q.17. What is the function of testes?

Ans. The testes are the male gonads and produce ies spermatozoa and the hormones testosterone. Testerone eds responsible for the secondary sex characteristics together with follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), it also promotes production of sperm.


Q.18. Describe the function of spermatic cord and seminal Vesicles?

Ans. Function of Spermatic cord – Spermatic cord is transmits the deferent ducts up into the body, along with other structure. The function of deferent duct is to carry the sperm to the ejaculatory duct.

Function of seminal vesicles – Seminal vesicles is production of the viscous secretion to keep the sperm alive and motile.


Q.19. Write the function of ejaculatory ducts.

Ans. These tiny muscle channels transport seminal fluid and spermatozoa to the urethra.


Q.20. Describe the functions of prostate gland.

Ans. The prostate gland produces a thin lubricating fluid that enters the urethra through ducts.


Q.21. Write the function of bulbourethral glands or (Cowper’s Gland))

Ans. These are two very small glands, which produce yet another lubricating agent that passes into the urethra just below the prostate gland.


Q.22. What is the function of penis?

Ans. It continues with the urethra, which is a passage for both urine and semen. It stiffens (develops an erection) during sexual stimulation in order to enter the vagina and release the semen close to the woman’s cervix.


Q.23. What is the process of formation of spermatozoa?

Ans. Sperm production starts during puberty and lasts until adulthood. Spermatogenesis takes place in the semini ferous tubules under the influence of FSH and testosterone. Maturation is a drawn-out process that takes a few weeks. Until ejaculation, the mature sperms are kept in the deferent duct and epididymis. In the absence of this, they deteriorate and become reabsorbed. 2-4 ml of semen are deposited in the vagina with each ejaculation. Every millilitre of seminal fluid contains roughly 100 million sperms. only 20–25% of which are likely to be abnormal. The remaining ones travel between 2-3 mm per minute. Each spermatozoan is made up of a head, a body, and a long, movable tail that laces to move the sperm forward. An acrosome, which covers the tip of the head, contains enzymes that can penetrate the ovum’s coating by dissolving it.


Q.24. Define Fornices.

Ans. The fornices are the clefts formed at the top of vagina (Vault) due to projection of the uterine cavity through the anterior-vaginal wall where it is blended inseparably with its wall.


Q.25. With which organ in male is the labia majora homologous.

Ans. Labia majora is homologous with scrotum in male.


Q.26. Define fourchette?

Ans. The lower portion of the labia minora fuses across the midline to form a fold of skin known as fourchette” It is usually Lacerated during Childbirth.


Q.27. What is fossa Navicularis ?

Ans. Between the fourchelte and vaginal orifice is fossa Navicularis.


Q.28. What all parts do the clitoris have?

Ans. Clitoris contains or consists of:

(a) A glans (richly supplied with nerves)

(b) A body

(c) Crura.


Q.29. With which Organ in male is clitoris analogue?

Ans. Clitoris is analogue to penis in male.


Q.30. How many openings are there into the vestibule?

Ans. There are 4 openings into the vestibule:

(a) Urethral Opening.

(b) Vaginal Orifice and hymen.

(c) Two bartholin ducts opening.


Q.31.What is hymen?

Ans. Hymen is a mucous membrane that incompletely closes the vaginal orifice by a septum. The Hymen is usually ruptured at consummation of marriage.


Q.32. How much is the diameter of vaginal canal?

Ans. The diameter of canal is about 2.5 cm, being widest in the upper part and narrowest at the introitus.


Q.33. Of what type is vaginal pH?

Ans. The vaginal pH from puberty to Menopause is acidic.


Q.34. Why is it acidic? (Vaginal pH)

Ans. It is acidic because of the presence of Doderleins bacilli which produce lactic acid from the glycogen present in exfoliated cells. The pH ranges with estrogenic activity and ranges between 4-5.


Q.35. What is the length of fallopian tubes?

Ans. It is 10 cm.


Q.36. Define pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm.

Ans. Pelvic floor is a muscular partition which separates the pelvic cavity from the anatomical perineum.


Q.37. Semen on discharge after how much does it liquify and why?

Ans. It liquifies within half an hour due to proteolytic enzyme highly motile and afterwards sperms become highly motile.


Q. 38. Name the muscles of pelvic floor which are present on each side.

Ans.(a) Pubococcygeus

(b) Ilicocygeus

(c) Ischio coccygeus.


Q.39. What are the above muscles call collectively?

Ans. Levator anii.


Q.40. From where do the levator anii muscles arise?

Ans. These arise from the back of pubic rami, from the condensed fasia covering the obturator inter and from the inner surface of ischial spine.


Q.41. Name the structure in relation to pelvic floor?

Ans. The pelvic floor consists of 2 types of structure

(a) Structure of superior surface. (b) Structure of inferior surface.


Q.42. Name the structure of superior and inferior surface.

Ans. Structure of superior surface:

(a) Pelvic Organs:

(i) Bladder (ii) Vagina (iii) Uterus (iv) Rectum

(b) Pelvic cellular tissues

(c) Ureters

(d) Pelvic nerves.

  1. Structure of inferior surface: Anatomic perineum.

Q.43. Write the functions of pelvic floor?

Ans. These are listed below: (a) It supports the pelvic organ.

(b) It maintains intra-abdominal pressure by reflex responding to its changes.

(c) It facilitates anterior internal rotation presenting part when it presses the pelvic floor

(d) Puborectalis plays an ancillary role to the action of external anal sphincter.

(e) Ischiococcygeus help to stabilise the sacroili and sacrococcygeal joints.

(f) Pelvic floor helps to steady the perineal body


Q.44. What do you understand by pelvic fascia?

Ans. It covers pelvic wall, pelvic floor and viscer.


Q.45. Where does pelvic cellular tissue lie and what does it contain?

Ans. It lies between the pelvic peritoneum and the pelvic floor. It fills up all the available empty spaces. It contains fatty and connective tissue and unstriped muscle fibres.


Q.46.Define parametrium.

Ans. When the pelvic cellular tissues distribute around the vaginal vault, supravaginal part of cervix and into the layers of broad ligament then they are known as parametrium.


Q.47. From where does the female urethra extend?

Ans. The female urethra extends from the neck of the bladder to external urethral meatus which opens into vestibule about 2.5 cm below the clitoris.


Q.48. Write its measurements.

Ans. It measures about 4cm and is 6mm in diameter.


Q.49. Define the urinary bladder.

Ans. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ with considerable power of distension.


Q.50. What is the capacity of bladder?

Ans. Its capacity is about 450 ml but it can retain as much as 3-4 Litres of urine.


Q. 51. Write the importance of breasts.

Ans. They are concerned with lactation following childbirth.


Q.52. Of what is the whole breast made?

Ans. Subcutaneous tissue.


Q.53. Where is milk stored in the breasts.

Ans. Ampulla


Q.54. Which hormone helps in Production of milk.

Ans. Prolactin.


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